Addressing the alarming rise of the bacterium "Mycobacterium avium Paratuberculosis"
in the environment and the growing evidence linking this bacterium to Crohn's

Contact Info:


Our Mission and our Goals

History of Crohn's Disease, Johne's disease, Mycobacterium avium Paratubercuosis

Recent Article Updates

Links to Articles
Page 2....3....4.....5

Perception of Risk

The Precautionary Principle

What is a Reportable Disease

Health of Animals Act, SC 1990, c 21


NRC National Science Library

Public Health Agency of Canada

Never In My Milk



ree Republic/News Activism/Topics - Post Article


La Presse,  April 8, 2001,  Never in My Milk? by Marie France Coutu

The Canadian Media

Canadian Medical and Government

Canadian Veterinary

Canadian Raw Milk Advocacy Group


Let's Talk


Taking Action

Link To Us

Does Mycobacterium Paratuberculosis cause Crohn's disease by Alan Kennedy  


Shafran's Gasterology Center

The Johne's Information Center

History of Early Research on Crohn's disease

Dr. B. Crohn

Got Milk? by Michael Greger, MD Updated January 2001

THE CROHN'S CONNECTION  by Lisa Chamberlain

Dire Warnings About Johne’s
Disease A wake-up call for the dairy industry?

Micobacteria and Crohn's Disease

Dr. Chiodini's Tables

American and European Links

University of Wisconsin School of Veterinary Medicine

Health Canada

Action Medical Research


University of Guelph

NACC ~ Crohnscanada ~

MAP-Canada does not advocate a particular cause of Crohn's disease.  Our website is intended only to present evidence.  Our readers may draw their own conclusions.  We are not medical specialists and do not offer any treatment or nutritional advice.  Our mission is not to lay blame on any individual or industry, but rather to urge the Government of Canada to address the evidence presented on this site.

Mise au Point:
MAP-Canada ne recommande aucune théorie particulière sur la cause de la maladie de Crohn.L'intente de notre site Web est simplement de présenter certaineévidence mais vous pouvez arriver à vos propres conclusions.Nous ne pouvons donner de conseils de nature médicale ou alimentaire. Notre mission ne consiste aucunement à blâmer un individuou une industrie mais
plutôt à s'assurer que le Gouvernement du Canada aborde l'évidence que nous présenton

MAP-Canada would like to extend a very sincere thank you to Yanik Chicoine at for his generosity and assistance in the hosting and the mounting of this site.

MAP-Canada aimerait remercier sincèrement Yanik Chicoine a pour sons générosité et sons assistance pour l'hébergement et la programation du site. ~ MAP-Canada ~


University of Wisconsin, Johne's disease

The School's expertise on Johne's disease has earned national recognition; in addition to domestic agriculture clients, clients include zoologic facilities and wildlife organizations. As in much of the School's work, research on an animal disease may help elict answers related to a human illness--in this case, Crohn's disease. To that end, the School of Veterinary Medicine and the Medical School are collaborating on research for the Crohn's and Colitis Foundation of America.

Alan Kennedy

Alan Kennedy, one of the founders of PARA, built and maintained the site that is referred to by all, who are looking for the most complete review of the available research on the subject of Crohn's disease and Paratuberculosis up to 1999. Alan has a gift for summarizing relevant data where original text cannot be reproduced. The site is clear, well organized and all-inclusive. Finding scientific content for this site would have a daunting without being able to link to the Kennedy site. We wish to express our gratitude for his contribution to our knowledge and understanding of this complex issue.

International Association for Paratuberculosis

This scientific organization, founded by Dr. Chiodini in 1989, is devoted to the advancement of scientific progress on Mycobacterium avium subspecies Paratuberculosis, related mycobacteria and related diseases. It is a place to share ideas, knowledge and research results. Its members include many of the world's most prominent scientists presently researching Paratuberculosis or other mycobacteria. There is a section on Crohn's but all fields having an interest in this group of bacteria are represented. It is an excellent scientific site.

Dr Ira Shafran

Dr. Shafran is a gastroenterologist, researcher and founder of Crohn’s Disease Research Inc, situated in Florida. He is medical advisor for PARA and also maintains an excellent website with extensive information on the relationship between Crohn’s disease and Paratuberculosis.

Zoonotic Potential

This site originating from the School of Veterinary Medicine at the University of Wisconsin-Madison deserves its reputation for being the standard by which other veterinary sites are compared. It is designed and maintained by Drs. Michael Collins and Elizabeth Manning. Dr. Collins is recognised as a world expert on Johne's disease and has also done extensive research into the link between Paratuberculosis and Crohn’s disease. The site section entitled “Zoonotic Potential”- risk of natural transmission from animals to humans - reviews the main points linking Paratuberculosis to Crohn’s disease. The site is clear, concise and comprehensive.

History of Early Research on Crohn's Disease

Early attempts at finding a cause. Since Crohn's disease was first encountered, it has been theorised that the disease is caused by infection with a mycobacterium. This extract from "Crohn's Disease and the Mycobacterioses: A Review and Comparison of Two Disease Entities" describes the early history of attempts to find a cause for Crohn's disease. "Mycobacteria and Crohn's disease: a historical perspective."


Please download Adobe Acrobat Reader 5 to read the site below, please go to

Regional Ileitis by Dr. Burrill Crohn

Landmark Article: October 15, 1932 (Jama 1932; 99, 1323-1320) Regional Ileitis, A Patologic and Clinical Entity, by Burril B. Crohn M.D., Leon Ginzberg M.D and Gordon D Oppenheimer M.D.